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Exam focus – Keypoint on Citizenship, the duties, rights and obligations of an individual in a State

Who Is A Citizen A citizen is a person who is a legal member of and owes allegiances to a particular country he resides in which he enjoys full civil and political rights and will be ready to put his life at stake in defence of its territory when an occasion calls for that.
Categories and method of acquisition of citizens

  • Citizenship by Birth: If a person is born in a country where a parent is are citizens, the person will automatically acquire the citizenship of that country by birth.
  • Citizenship by Naturalization: A Citizen of a country who has lived in another country for a long period, for instance, 15 years as is the case in Nigeria, can apply for citizenship of the country he resides.
  • Citizenship by Descent: This is a method by which a person claims citizenship of another country as a result of the fact that his grandparents are citizens of the country.
  • Citizenship by Registration: This is a method by which women acquire citizenship through marriage. For instance, a Ghanaian woman who married to a Nigerian may register as a citizen of Nigeria.
  • Honorary Citizenship: This is when citizenship of a country is granted to a distinguished or eminent foreigner without the requirement as a mark of honour.

Conditions an alien must satisfy before he/she can become a citizen of a given country

  • The alien must have lived in the country for a long period of time which may range from 15-20 years.
  • The alien must marry a citizen for about 5years.
  • Must have good character with an outstanding reputation.
  • At least two persons m8ust attest to his conduct.
  • The alien must have made or is capable of contributing usefully to the advancement and progress of the state.
  • The alien must renounce his formal nationality.
  • The applicant of citizenship must take an oath of allegiance.
  • He must be of a matured age.
  • If the parents of the alien are citizens.

Duties and obligation of a citizen

  1. Law abiding
  2. Payment of taxes
  3. Loyalty
  4. Defence of the country
  5. Service to the nation
  6. Civic responsibilities
  7. Care of public property
  8. Honesty
  9. Assisting the law enforcement agents
  10. Respect for national flag
  11. Non-interference with other people’s right
  12. Respect for the national anthem
  13. Offer constructive criticisms
  14. Respect for the head of state
  15. Avoidance of destructive acts.

Rights of a citizen

  • Right to life.
  • Right to freedom from torture, inhuman or degrading punishment.
  • Right to freedom from deprivation of personal liberty.
  • Right to the dignity of a human person.
  • Right to freedom from discrimination on the grounds of sex, race, tribe creed or political opinion and association.
  • Right to fair and equal learning.
  • Right to private and family life.
  • Right to freedom of movement.
  • Right to peacefully assembly and association.
  • Right to freedom of expression and the press thought, conscience, religion, from slavery and forced labour, unlawful imprisonment.

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